points of comparison:
Codornices they occupy the space of 100 chickens.
Eggs of codorniz equal to 1 of chicken.
codorniz puts an egg each 22 hours, the chicken puts it with
an interim of 26 Hours.
Egg of codorniz weighs 1 gram, that of chicken 57 grams.
a dozen of eggs of codorniz is necessary 300 grams of
food; for a dozen of eggs of chicken requires 2.2
egg of codorniz has 0.7% of colesterol, that of chicken
position of the codorniz is constant and couple during all the
Year, the chicken suffers position drop periods.
codornices not they are attacked for illnesses
Infectocontagiosas, the chickens yes.
position of the codorniz is produced in the morning, the chicken
In the last minute of the day.
codorniz is found mature to begin to put eggs to the
42 days; the chicken on the other hand to the 58.
alone person easily can take charge of a nursery of codornices; in the referring thing to chickens, they do lacks al less
To achieve a good breeding the election
Of the place is it more more important. Is advisable
reacondicionar places or to take advantage of spaces that before
They had another use. Ideals result the tinglados with
Possibilities of cerramiento, galpones or rooms.
When the shed of lodging is installed, they should be had
in certain account conditions of brightness, ventilation and
To remember: The reflection of the light of the sun
It stimulates the fijación of calcium in the eggs.
The land to locate the farm owes
to be it more far away possible of houses of room, of
other farms and of future centers urbanísticos, turísticos,
etc., to avoid, among others things, the contagion of
illnesses among animals and toward the human being
In every moment is necessary to arrange
of electricity and of a good fountain of water potable, for
to fill the physiological needs of the fowls and of the
Cleaning of the galpones and equipment.
The type and quality of construction of
a galpón, depends on the climatic conditions of the
place, of the purpose of the production and of the middles
economic with which itself count.
The galpón should be built in
dry places, lands well drenados, and preferably in
places where the sun penetrate several hours during the day
and be protected of strong currents of wind.
For the good operation of the
farm is necessary that the galpones they have extensive brinks,
especially in humid zones; good ventilation,
acondicionamiento for the bebederos, troughs, nests, light
electric, permanent fountain of water potable and a good one
covered with floor.
The ideal construction of a galpón
should have a zócalo or wall of blocks of concrete with a
most minimum from 60 to 80 cm of height, upon which is placed the
horcones of wood or "perlings" of 1,20 m; for
A total height of 1,80 m, since the floor to it to be used to.
The open space of the wall is lined with malla metallic
(type cyclone or soldier), with holes of some 2,5 cm.
The floor of ground is able apelmazar and
to be utilized in this form, although by sanitary reasons
is preferably to spout a layer with concrete, of a thickness
(5 to 6 cm) that not be broken with facility and last many years,
And that besides permit to perform a good one washed. The material
more more recommendable for the covered with the roof is the zinc
corrugado, by its greater durability and facility of placement;
nevertheless any another product as tiles can be used
of clay, fibrocemento, etc.
The type of galpón should be adjusted to the
activity (breeding/development or breeding/production of
Eggs) and al number of animals that is desired to have. When
the galpón has more than six meters of wide, is recommended
the roof of two water, so that not be very high and because it
it offers greater protection al to impede the entrance of rain and
The dimensions of the galpón depend basically
of the number of animals that be desired to have, of the topography
Of the land and of the available materials. If not they have
the basic knowledge of construction, is better
to consult with some technician or construction, who be able it
to draw the plan of the galpón and to do the budget
Respective. The logical thing in every case, is that not have
waste of materials, as cutting it less possible the
Wood, perlings or the sheets of zinc. One must treat of
to utilize the majority of the materials in the same
Dimensions in which they market themselves. In zones of climate
hot they should lodge some five chickens by meter
square, while in cold climate can have a
Density of six or seven fowls by square meter.
The installation of cages decides the success,
the mediocrity and to the failure of management of the breeding and
exploitation of nurseries of small animals as by
Example the codornices, chinchillas or rabbits, etc.
The cages are built with
material as resistant as the steel and the iron
galvanizado. the grating is vertical and in the front himself
it finds a door driven by springs that permits a
Absolute comfort al to manipulate the fowls. The floor also
composed by a metallic grille, possesses a decible of the one
percent to achieve that the eggs slide to the
exterior support of each compartimiento
The dimensions of the cages are
normalizadas of way such that can be located a
over another as if were batteries. in each unit it
ideal it is to provide accommodation conveniently twenty animals since
them measured are 1.20 mts. of long for 80 cm of wide and 40
Cm of high. A composed battery for 6 cages (calls
BOC) can be located easily in a surface of 1.50
Mts. square and they represent a value of 990$.
These cages possess characteristics
standart that they permit their transportation, installation modular
Immediate and a comfortable and simple management of the fowls. They are
designed especially so that the food and the
Excrements not have contact among itself. They possess besides
systems of bebederos automatic that are connected to a network
Of current water.
Cares of the eggs
Is very important the processing that
They receive the eggs destined to the incubación. Is need
to treat them with delicacy by the facility of its break,
besides they should be retired of the cages al less twice by
Day. In epochs of heat is convenient to carry out the
recolección of the eggs 3 or 4 times al day.
The codorniz Japanese, al contrary of
what it occurs with the chicken, puts more eggs in the last
hours of the afternoon and in the first of the night.
The eggs destined to the incubación should be
maintained in clean and fresh environments, to a temperature
approximate of 15º C and with a 75 percent of humidity
The theme of the temperature is something
Complex. To times eggs that they carry two or three days of
positions al to be incubated only offer a 20 percent of
Pollitos. Possibly this owe to that in some moment
before to be introduced in the incubadora have been
exposed to high temperatures provoking that the process of the
egg began with anticipation causing the death of the
Embryo. The ideal thing is to possess a room of incubación with chamber
of conservation of eggs but, in general, the fruitful
of codornices not they count on these comforts, in
consequence, they should have more more cared for and to be very
Is not convenient that the eggs that
they enter the incubadora they have more than seven days of
position since to the extent that elapse the days diminishes
the percentage of births reducing the possibilities of
To be maintained in the intended average of the 80 percent. Of
not to carry out the adequate management exists a mortality of
embryos that is presented mainly, to the three days
of introducing the eggs in the incubadora and little time
Before being produced the eclosión. They are many the factors
that inciden upon the fertility and incubabilidad of the
eggs, as the relation among sexes, the age of the
reproductores and the conditions of breeding.
To have in the plantel a male one each three
females is an adequate relation to obtain a
Acceptable fertility. Also the light, the temperature, the
space, that of the animals, the satisfied, weight of the
eggs, the prior periods of storage to the
incubación, the conditions of raises, etc., are factors
That inciden, in greater or smaller degree, upon the fertility.
The male they can be left
Permanently with the females. The advantage of this management
is the possible maximum of fertility of the plantel and the
disadvantage, the increase of the picaje, the agresividad of the male one,
the desplume, etc.
A good food is that in which they are
present all the nutrientes in the proportions
necessary so that the fowls develop and they produce
Eggs. The deficiency of a nutriente can retard the
development, to diminish the position and until can provoke
Susceptibilidad to illnesses.
The nutrientes they can divide into six
classes: water, hidratos of carbon, proteínas, greases,
vitaminas and mineral. is convenient to remember which is the
it differentiates that exists among a simple food and another
Balanced. Thus for example, the grain of corn is a
simple food therefore does not contain the sufficient proportion
of all the nutrientes that they permit to a chicken to produce
Eggs in continuous form. This cereal is rich in hidratos of
carbon and poor in proteínas, vitaminas and mineral.
To compensate these deficiencies itself
they should add other rich, simple food in proteínas
as the flour of soja, of girasol and flour of bone and
Conchilla that they contribute calcium and match. Of the correct one
mixed of distinct simple proportions of food itself
It obtains the balanced food.
This illness is caused for a virus (coronavirus), the
Which it affects only to chickens and chickens.
Noises are produced respiratorios typical of the illness,
so much in young fowls as in adults, including
jadeos, estertores (due to the mucosidad of the tráquea),
Tos, secreción nasal and sorrowful eyes. Being based
only in the symptoms respiratorios, is difficult
Differentiating it of the illness of NewCastle. To
difference with the illness of NewCastle, the
bronchitis never presents nervous symptoms and the
mortality is smaller, the production of egg although
also it is affected, never lowers to zero, the
quality of the egg is altered during more time and
The fowls delay more in normalizar the position.
The illness is transmitted easily through the air and
Any another medium mechanic. The bronchitis
generally it affects to all a lot of fowls in form
simultaneous, completing its course respiratorio in
Not a specific processing exists and once himself
It presents is difficult of controlling. It can be produced
immunity quickly by means of the application of the
Vacuna. The vacuna of the stumps Connecticut or
Massachusetts atenuadas, you be used to or in combination,
They can be applied since the first day of born.
Is a very contagious illness of the chickens, pavos and Other fowls. It is caused for a bacteria called
It can be presented in three forms:
In the sharp form, the rage aviar attacks all the body,
affecting to great quantity of animals and cause a
High mortality. Great quantity of the fowls they leave
of eating and to drink, losing weight in quick form;
being able to be presented yellow diarrhea of color
verdoso and a marked fall in the production of
Eggs. Can occur parálisis due to the
Inflammations of the legs and fingers.
In the form sobreaguda, produces the sudden death of
Animal apparently healthy. The attack is so quick
that the same one avicultor cannot note that is before
A bud of the illness.
From time to time can adopt the chronic form, in which the
illness is located, provoking inflammations in
The face and barbillas of the chickens. The barbillas
they can take a red color came and to be felt hot
Al touch. The
rage generally is not presented in young chickens,
But yes in the pavos.
The physical waste of the sick fowls contaminate the
food, water and the bed, being infected thus the
Other healthy animals. Also they can be infected
when the healthy fowls picotean the corpses of
Animal that they suffered the illness. The bud themselves
it presents among the four and nine days after
Contracted the infection.
its processing has been recommended the use of sulfas,
As the sulfaquinoxalina. Other products as
enrofloxacina and fosfomicina they are recommended for the
processing of this and other illnesses
to control the illness is recommended to eliminate
prompt the corpses, in order to not they being
Consumed (canibalismo) by the other fowls. Owes himself
to do a cleaning and total disinfection of the
Installations and equipment. The application of bacterinas
is advisable in the majority of the zones where
a high degree of risk exist that itself present a
This illness is produced for a bacteria called
Among the first symptoms sneezes are presented,
you followed by a supuración maloliente and inflammation
Of the eyes and breasts nasales. In agreement advances the
illness, the exuded returns caseoso (as
cheese) and accumulates in the eyes; producing hinchazón And in many cases to the loss of the eyes. The
problem can accelerate or to aggravate when himself
they present abrupt changes of the air currents,
of temperature, humidity, or by the desparasitación and
Vacunación. Generally it diminishes the consumption of
Food and the production of eggs.
The illness can be transmitted of an animal to another and of
a parvada to another by direct contact, by middle
of the particles of dust that moves the air among
galerones or through the persons that they take care of of
The best control is by means of the prevention, raising new
lots of pollitas in galpones far away of the fowls
old or of those suspects of being portadoras
Of the illness. Not a specific processing exists,
although the use is recommended of antibióticos for
To avoid possible secondary infections.
Can apply antibióticos as the estreptomicina by way
intramuscular in an unique dose of 200 milligrams
by chicken or chicken, or from 300 to 400 milligrams by
Rooster. The eritromicina in the water of beverage, in
dose of 0,5 g/gallon (3,785 l) during seven days,
or in the food to reason of 92,5 g by ton,
During 7 to 14 days.
The illness is caused for an "enterovirus" of the
Group of the picornavirus. Generally it affects to
fowls among the first one and third week of age and to
The adults during the period of position.
The symptoms are presented with more frequency in animals
young, al to manifest a to walk hesitant,
Incoordinación and to parálisis partial or total.
To the extent that enlarges the incoordinación muscular,
the fowls tend to be sited down upon the tarsos
(talones), getting worse until no longer they be able
To walk. Al to manipulate these fowls, can be felt
The quick tremblings of the body.
The encefalomielitis is transmitted mainly by middle
of the eggs of fowls infected; although not itself
it discards the possibility of being spread in form
Direct or through the sediments.
Not curative processing exists and is recommended the
Sacrifice of the animal youths affected. The
reproductores vacunados after the 10 weeks
of age they transmit the immunity to the progenie by
Medium of the egg.
Illness respiratoria chronic (aerosaculitis)
It is caused mainly by Mycoplasma gallisepticum,
Although also it has been found Escherichia coli.
The first symptoms resemble them produced by the
illnesses of New Castle and infectious bronchitis,
such as difficulty al to breathe, mucosidad nasal and
Estertores of the tráquea. Frequently itself
it finds a material one blancuzco and foamy in the tráquea
And air bags. In the cases advanced of the
illness can be appreciated the liver and heart
You covered by an exuded of white or yellow color.
The course of the illness is slow.
The illness is transmitted for direct contact, of a fowl
to another or through the particles of dust that
It carries the wind of a galpón to another. The problem
main it is that the chickens can transmit the
Illness to their children through the egg.
Although the processing with antibióticos specific gives
satisfactory results, economically speaking,
the best is its control by means of the elimination of
The animal patients. The tests serológicas
they permit to detect the reproductoras positive to
level of farm, with what can be offered fowls
You free of this illness. The fertile eggs would be able
to be treated with antibióticos as the tartrato of Tilosina, to eliminate the microorganisms of M.
The glutamato of eritromicina in concentrations of 2 g/gallon
of water during three days has reduced notably
The infection. The tartrato of tilosina is employed with
very good results in dose of 0,5 g/l of water,
During 2-3 days, depending on the infection.
Gumboro or bursitis
This illness is caused for a birnavirus, which is
very resistant to the environmental conditions
unfavorable, for which it is complicated its erradicación
Of the farms infected.
Many times, the first symptom of the illness of
Gumboro or Bursitis is a noise respiratorio. Other symptoms
that they can be appreciated they are decaimiento, feathers
Bristly, tremblings, diarrheas acuosas and prostration.
The bud occur with more frequency when the Fowls have from 3 to 8 weeks of age. The mortality
generally not it surpasses the 10% and in a second
infection of the same lot, the mortality is still
Smaller. The Purse of Fabricio (located upon the
sewer), will be found inflamed and its size is able
To be two or more times its normal size. In animals
healthy, the Purse of Fabricio is smaller than the
Vesícula. In the chronic cases, the purse will be more
small (itself atrofia), for which the answer to the
vacunación is smaller, enlarging the susceptibilidad
To other infections.
The illness is very contagious and is transmitted for contact
direct of the fowls, of its excrements; or by middle
Of the equipment and clothes of the operarios.
Not yet an adequate processing is known. The prevention,
of the reproductoras and the young fowls, by means of
The vacunación is the best control of the illness.
The most most efficient method to control the illness
of Gumboro is that of inducing a high immunity to the
mothers, which is transmitted its children by middle
Of the egg.
Al the same as other virus of the influenza aviar, they belong
To the family Orthomyxovridae. All the virus of the
influenza that affect the animal servants they are
Of the group "TO". The other groups
"B" and "C" they affect only al to be
human; however the type "TO" is the one that
it originates generally the most most important epidemics
In the man.
The infections caused by Influenza Aviar Highly Patógena
(IAAP) they give as a result a marked depression,
bristly feathers, inapetencia, excessive thirst, fall
In the production of egg and diarrhea acuosa. This last one
it is of a brilliant green color, being modified to
Almost totally white.
The adult fowls frequently present inflammation of
the barbillas and crests, besides edema around
Of the eyes. Often the tips are found of
The crests with a color cianótico or purple. The last
eggs positions after initiated the bud, by it General they are without cascarón. The symptoms
respiratorios they are able or not to be a factor
significant of the illness, due to the gravity
of the wound in the tráquea and to the accumulation of
Mucosidad. The mortality and morbilidad, of to a
100%, it can be presented during the first 24
hours and to be prolonged to a week or more; although
some animals seriously affected would be able
To be recuperated.
This illness can be confused easily with New
Castle or with sharp illnesses bacterianas as the
It is believed that the migratory aquatic fowls are
generally the responsible for introducing the virus
In the chickens and chickens. The investigations
they indicate that the virus extends from some to other by
medium of the movement of the fowls infected, equipment,
cardboards for egg or trucks with food
contaminated and through the water contaminated with
secreciones and by air way or aerosol, when
The animals sneeze infected.
The vacunas inactive in oil they have shown to be
effective, so much to reduce the mortality as
To prevent the illness.
The processing with hidrocloruro of amantadina has been
approved for use in humans since 1966 and is effective for atenuar the severity and incidencia of
Influenza Aviar. It can be administered through the
Water of beverage.
Not evidence exists that justify any anxiety that
The virus aviares they be a threat for the humans.
Illness of Marek
The illness is caused for a virus herpes.
In few occasions occurs that some animals die without
to present the characteristic symptoms of the
illness; however, in most cases
the affection is presented in the nerves ciáticos,
which certain degree produces them of parálisis of
The legs and wings. In cases advanced sees to the
animal fallen with a leg stretched toward
ahead and the other backwards, and one of the wings
Falls, as trying to be supported in her. As part of the complex of leucosis, is also able
to observe tumors in the liver, pulmones, kidneys,
Ovarios, eyes and in other organs.
Due to the parálisis of the legs, the animals are not able
to be mobilized to the troughs and bebederos, by it
that gradually they lose weight until postradas in
The soil, they die for inanición. The muscles of the
pechuga they are reduced almost completely, palpándose
Without meat the bone of the esternón or quilla. The symptoms
they appear generally after the 15 weeks of
age; being the upper mortality al 50% in lots
Of fowls not vacunadas.
The transmisión of the virus he is carries out mainly
through the escamas that they are removed of the
folículos (root) of the feathers, which themselves
They transport for the wind. These escamas they adhere
to the particles of dust that accumulates in the
walls and sieve of the poultry coops, where is able
To survive for more than a year in those conditions.
From there the importance that has the health in the
installations, for which should be shaken the
To the day of today not no processing is known
Against the Illness of Marek. Its control is carried out
by means of the vacunación of all the animals, by
the way subcutánea in dose of 0,2 ml, during the First 24 hours of life. This vacuna will protect to
The fowls during all its life. The vacuna should be
applied to the recently born fowls before
They come out of the plant of incubación.
The illness of New Castle is produced for a
Paramyxovirus. Although it is known alone a serotipo of the
virus, different stumps have been isolated, that itself
they classify according to their virulencia or the velocity
With which it can kill al embryo. The stump
"lentogénica" (The Sota) is the one that delays more
time in killing the embryo, the "mesogénica"
(B1 and Roakin) is the intermediate stump, and the
"velogénica" (Kansas) the stump more patógena
And that it takes less time in killing the embryo.
At present the country is found free of this illness
and thus it was declared for the Department of United agriculture of States of America (USDA).
The first symptoms are problems respiratorios with tos,
I pant, estertores of the tráquea and a piar ronco,
following then the characteristic nervous symptoms
of this illness; in which the fowls place their
head among the legs or backwards among the
shoulders, moving the head and neck in circles and
The mortality can be greater al 50% in animal youths,
in ponedoras, although is not so high, the symptoms appear
respiratorios and the production of eggs lowers to zero
In one or two days. The production recuperates some
six weeks later, but eggs will be found
with the deformed and thin shell, and some to
Without the shell. In the animals affected with New
Castle can be observed to times a diarrhea verdosa
That it indicates the food consumption lack.
This illness is very contagious and is transmitted for middle
of the discharges nasales and excrement of the fowls
Processing and control
Not no effective processing against the illness exists
Of New Castle. The only control is achieved by means of
the vacunación, which is repeated several times
During the life of the animal. It is recommended like norm
general, the first one vacunación to the four days
of born with the Stump B1 of the smooth type, then itself
continues at twelve minutes after four weeks with the Stump The
Sota. From here on itself vacunará each three
Months with the Stump The Sota. For facility of
application, when are large lots of fowls, themselves
it recommends to do it through the water of beverage, in
sufficient quantity as so that they can consume it
In some 15-20 minutes. As estabilizador, al water
it it should be added milk descremada in dust, to reason
Of a spoonful by gallon.
It is produced for the virus (Borreliota avium), which him
It disseminates very slowly. In ours half rural itself
it knows it as "bubas" and
The viruela aviar is presented in two forms:
The humid form or diftérica, affects the mucosas of the
throat, mouth and tongue, provoking the formation of
úlceras or false membranas yellowish; and
The cutaneous form or drought, that produces crusts or grains in
The crest, barbillas and expensive.
In spite of that the cutaneous form it is more more frequent; the
Humid form produces immediate one more mortality.
In severe bud, the animals are put sad,
To they stop eating and they descend of weight. The symptoms
characteristic of the pústulas or grains of the
expensive and crest as well as the yellow patches necróticos
Of the throat and mouth they are difficult of confusing.
These patches necróticos in the mouth, acquaintances in
our country as pepilla, and the grains of the face
not they should be eliminated, therefore al to remove them they leave úlceras
sangrantes and enlarges the contagion to other animals
The virus is transmitted for direct contact, of an animal to
Another or through the food or water of beverage. The
zancudos or other insects that suck blood would be able
to be transmisores of this illness among fowls and
Galerones. The animals that have suffered the
illness and they recuperate, they remain like bearers
of the virus, for which is recommended to eliminate them or al
less not to mix them with animals more youths and Healthy.
Not no effective processing exists, although himself
it recommends the use of antibióticos with the objective
Of avoiding secondary infections. The use of the
vacuna is a common practice among the
avicultores, who they do it of routine by their under
Cost and facility of application. It is recommended
revacunar when some animal appear with the symptoms
To avoid you spring up severe of the illness, owes itself
vacunar immediately to all the animals that not
they show the characteristic symptoms; without
embargo, once some of them be manifested,
is not advisable vacunar, since a strong reaction
To the vacuna would be able them ocasionar the death.