Chickens Or Quails?

Some points of comparison:

1000 Codornices they occupy the space of 100 chickens.

Three Eggs of codorniz equal to 1 of chicken.

A codorniz puts an egg each 22 hours, the chicken puts it with an interim of 26 Hours.

A Egg of codorniz weighs 1 gram, that of chicken 57 grams.

For a dozen of eggs of codorniz is necessary 300 grams of food; for a dozen of eggs of chicken requires 2.2 Kilograms.

The egg of codorniz has 0.7% of colesterol, that of chicken 7%.

The position of the codorniz is constant and couple during all the Year, the chicken suffers position drop periods.

The codornices not they are attacked for illnesses Infectocontagiosas, the chickens yes.

The position of the codorniz is produced in the morning, the chicken In the last minute of the day.

The codorniz is found mature to begin to put eggs to the 42 days; the chicken on the other hand to the 58.

A alone person easily can take charge of a nursery of codornices; in the referring thing to chickens, they do lacks al less Two.

The Necessary installations

To achieve a good breeding the election Of the place is it more more important. Is advisable reacondicionar places or to take advantage of spaces that before They had another use. Ideals result the tinglados with Possibilities of cerramiento, galpones or rooms. When the shed of lodging is installed, they should be had in certain account conditions of brightness, ventilation and Humidity.

To remember: The reflection of the light of the sun It stimulates the fijación of calcium in the eggs.

The land to locate the farm owes to be it more far away possible of houses of room, of other farms and of future centers urbanísticos, turísticos, etc., to avoid, among others things, the contagion of illnesses among animals and toward the human being  

In every moment is necessary to arrange of electricity and of a good fountain of water potable, for to fill the physiological needs of the fowls and of the Cleaning of the galpones and equipment.

The type and quality of construction of a galpón, depends on the climatic conditions of the place, of the purpose of the production and of the middles economic with which itself count. 

The galpón should be built in dry places, lands well drenados, and preferably in places where the sun penetrate  several hours during the day and be protected of strong currents of wind. 

For the good operation of the farm is necessary that the galpones they have extensive brinks, especially in humid zones; good ventilation, acondicionamiento for the bebederos, troughs, nests, light electric, permanent fountain of water potable and a good one covered with floor. 

The ideal construction of a galpón should have a zócalo or wall of blocks of concrete with a most minimum from 60 to 80 cm of height, upon which is placed the horcones of wood or "perlings" of 1,20 m; for A total height of 1,80 m, since the floor to it to be used to. The open space of the wall is lined with malla metallic (type cyclone or soldier), with holes of some 2,5 cm. 

The floor of ground is able apelmazar and to be utilized in this form, although by sanitary reasons is preferably to spout a layer with concrete, of a thickness (5 to 6 cm) that not be broken with facility and last many years, And that besides permit to perform a good one washed. The material more more recommendable for the covered with the roof is the zinc corrugado, by its greater durability and facility of placement; nevertheless any another product as tiles can be used of clay, fibrocemento, etc. 

The type of galpón should be adjusted to the activity (breeding/development or breeding/production of Eggs) and al number of animals that is desired to have. When the galpón has more than six meters of wide, is recommended the roof of two water, so that not be very high and because it it offers greater protection al to impede the entrance of rain and wind. 

The dimensions of the galpón depend basically of the number of animals that be desired to have, of the topography Of the land and of the available materials. If not they have the basic knowledge of construction, is better to consult with some technician or construction, who be able it to draw the plan of the galpón and to do the budget Respective. The logical thing in every case, is that not have waste of materials, as cutting it less possible the Wood, perlings or the sheets of zinc. One must treat of to utilize the majority of the materials in the same Dimensions in which they market themselves. In zones of climate hot they should lodge some five chickens by meter square, while in cold climate can have a Density of six or seven fowls by square meter.

The installation of cages decides the success, the mediocrity and to the failure of management of the breeding and exploitation of nurseries of small animals as by Example the codornices, chinchillas or rabbits, etc.

The cages are built with material as resistant as the steel and the iron galvanizado. the grating is vertical and in the front himself it finds a door driven by springs that permits a Absolute comfort al to manipulate the fowls. The floor also composed by a metallic grille, possesses a decible of the one percent to achieve that the eggs slide to the exterior support of each compartimiento  

The dimensions of the cages are normalizadas of way such that can be located a over another as if were batteries. in each unit it ideal it is to provide accommodation conveniently twenty animals  since them measured are 1.20 mts. of long for 80 cm of wide and 40 Cm of high. A composed battery for 6 cages (calls BOC) can be located easily in a surface of 1.50 Mts. square and they represent a value of 990$.

These cages possess characteristics standart that they permit their transportation, installation modular Immediate and a comfortable and simple management of the fowls. They are designed especially so that the food and the Excrements not have contact among itself. They possess besides systems of bebederos automatic that are connected to a network Of current water.

The Cares of the eggs

Is very important the processing that They receive the eggs destined to the incubación. Is need to treat them with delicacy by the facility of its break, besides they should be retired of the cages al less twice by Day. In epochs of heat is convenient to carry out the recolección of the eggs 3 or 4 times al day. 

The codorniz Japanese, al contrary of what it occurs with the chicken, puts more eggs in the last hours of the afternoon and in the first of the night. 
The eggs destined to the incubación should be maintained in clean and fresh environments, to a temperature approximate of 15º C and with a 75 percent of humidity relative. 

The theme of the temperature is something Complex. To times eggs that they carry two or three days of positions al to be incubated only offer a 20 percent of Pollitos. Possibly this owe to that in some moment before to be introduced in the incubadora have been exposed to high temperatures provoking that the process of the egg began with anticipation causing the death of the Embryo. The ideal thing is to possess a room of incubación with chamber of conservation of eggs but, in general, the fruitful of codornices not they count on these comforts, in consequence, they should have more more cared for and to be very attentive. 

Is not convenient that the eggs that they enter the incubadora they have more than seven days of position since to the extent that elapse the days diminishes the percentage of births reducing the possibilities of To be maintained in the intended average of the 80 percent. Of not to carry out the adequate management exists a mortality of embryos that is presented mainly, to the three days of introducing the eggs in the incubadora and little time Before being produced the eclosión. They are many the factors that inciden upon the fertility and incubabilidad of the eggs, as the relation among sexes, the age of the reproductores and the conditions of breeding. 

To have in the plantel a male one each three females is an adequate relation to obtain a Acceptable fertility. Also the light, the temperature, the space, that of the animals, the satisfied,  weight of the eggs, the prior periods of storage to the incubación, the conditions of raises, etc., are factors That inciden, in greater or smaller degree, upon the fertility.

The male they can be left Permanently with the females. The advantage of this management is the possible maximum of fertility of the plantel and the disadvantage, the increase of the picaje, the agresividad of the male one, the desplume, etc. 

Diet adequate

A good food is that in which they are present all the nutrientes in the proportions necessary so that the fowls develop and they produce Eggs. The deficiency of a nutriente can retard the development, to diminish the position and until can provoke Susceptibilidad to illnesses.

The nutrientes they can divide into six classes: water, hidratos of carbon, proteínas, greases, vitaminas and mineral. is convenient to remember which is the it differentiates that exists among a simple food and another Balanced. Thus for example, the grain of corn is a simple food therefore does not contain the sufficient proportion of all the nutrientes that they permit to a chicken to produce Eggs in continuous form. This cereal is rich in hidratos of carbon and poor in proteínas, vitaminas and mineral. 

To compensate these deficiencies itself they should add other rich, simple food in proteínas as the flour of soja, of girasol and flour of bone and Conchilla that they contribute calcium and match. Of the correct one mixed of distinct simple proportions of food itself It obtains the balanced food.

Possible Illnesses

Infectious bronchitis

Agent causal

This illness is caused for a virus (coronavirus), the Which it affects only to chickens and chickens.


Noises are produced respiratorios typical of the illness, so much in young fowls as in adults, including jadeos, estertores (due to the mucosidad of the tráquea), Tos, secreción nasal and sorrowful eyes. Being based only in the symptoms respiratorios, is difficult Differentiating it of the illness of NewCastle. To difference with the illness of NewCastle, the bronchitis never presents nervous symptoms and the mortality is smaller, the production of egg although also it is affected, never lowers to zero, the quality of the egg is altered during more time and The fowls delay more in normalizar the position.


The illness is transmitted easily through the air and Any another medium mechanic. The bronchitis generally it affects to all a lot of fowls in form simultaneous, completing its course respiratorio in 10-15 days.

Processing and control

Not a specific processing exists and once himself It presents is difficult of controlling. It can be produced immunity quickly by means of the application of the Vacuna. The vacuna of the stumps Connecticut or Massachusetts atenuadas, you be used to or in combination, They can be applied since the first day of born.


Rage aviar

Agent causal

Is a very contagious illness of the chickens, pavos and Other fowls. It is caused for a bacteria called Pasteurella multocida.

Symptoms: It can be presented in three forms:

In the sharp form, the rage aviar attacks all the body, affecting to great quantity of animals and cause a High mortality. Great quantity of the fowls they leave of eating and to drink, losing weight in quick form; being able to be presented yellow diarrhea of color verdoso and a marked fall in the production of Eggs. Can occur parálisis due to the Inflammations of the legs and fingers.

In the form sobreaguda, produces the sudden death of Animal apparently healthy. The attack is so quick that the same one avicultor cannot note that is before A bud of the illness.

From time to time can adopt the chronic form, in which the illness is located, provoking inflammations in The face and barbillas of the chickens. The barbillas they can take a red color came and to be felt hot Al touch. The rage generally is not presented in young chickens, But yes in the pavos.


The physical waste of the sick fowls contaminate the food, water and the bed, being infected thus the Other healthy animals. Also they can be infected when the healthy fowls picotean the corpses of Animal that they suffered the illness. The bud themselves it presents among the four and nine days after Contracted the infection.

Processing and control

For its processing has been recommended the use of sulfas, As the sulfaquinoxalina. Other products as enrofloxacina and fosfomicina they are recommended for the processing of this and other illnesses Respiratorias.

For to control the illness is recommended to eliminate prompt the corpses, in order to not they being Consumed (canibalismo) by the other fowls. Owes himself to do a cleaning and total disinfection of the Installations and equipment. The application of bacterinas is advisable in the majority of the zones where a high degree of risk exist that itself present a Bud.


Coriza infectious

Agent causal

This illness is produced for a bacteria called Haemophilus gallinarum.


Among the first symptoms sneezes are presented, you followed by a supuración maloliente and inflammation Of the eyes and breasts nasales. In agreement advances the illness, the exuded returns caseoso (as cheese) and accumulates in the eyes; producing hinchazón And in many cases to the loss of the eyes. The problem can accelerate or to aggravate when himself they present abrupt changes of the air currents, of temperature, humidity, or by the desparasitación and Vacunación. Generally it diminishes the consumption of Food and the production of eggs.


The illness can be transmitted of an animal to another and of a parvada to another by direct contact, by middle of the particles of dust that moves the air among galerones or through the persons that they take care of of The animals.

Processing and control

The best control is by means of the prevention, raising new lots of pollitas in galpones far away of the fowls old or of those suspects of being portadoras Of the illness. Not a specific processing exists, although the use is recommended of antibióticos for To avoid possible secondary infections.

Can apply antibióticos as the estreptomicina by way intramuscular in an unique dose of 200 milligrams by chicken or chicken, or from 300 to 400 milligrams by Rooster. The eritromicina in the water of beverage, in dose of 0,5 g/gallon (3,785 l) during seven days, or in the food to reason of 92,5 g by ton, During 7 to 14 days.


Encefalomielitis aviar

Agent causal

The illness is caused for an "enterovirus" of the Group of the picornavirus. Generally it affects to fowls among the first one and third week of age and to The adults during the period of position.


The symptoms are presented with more frequency in animals young, al to manifest a to walk hesitant, Incoordinación and to parálisis partial or total. To the extent that enlarges the incoordinación muscular, the fowls tend to be sited down upon the tarsos (talones), getting worse until no longer they be able To walk. Al to manipulate these fowls, can be felt The quick tremblings of the body.


The encefalomielitis is transmitted mainly by middle of the eggs of fowls infected; although not itself it discards the possibility of being spread in form Direct or through the sediments.

Processing and control

Not curative processing exists and is recommended the Sacrifice of the animal youths affected. The reproductores vacunados after the 10 weeks of age they transmit the immunity to the progenie by Medium of the egg.


Illness respiratoria chronic (aerosaculitis)

Agent causal

It is caused mainly by Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Although also it has been found Escherichia coli.


The first symptoms resemble them produced by the illnesses of New Castle and infectious bronchitis, such as difficulty al to breathe, mucosidad nasal and Estertores of the tráquea. Frequently itself it finds a material one blancuzco and foamy in the tráquea And air bags. In the cases advanced of the illness can be appreciated the liver and heart You covered by an exuded of white or yellow color. The course of the illness is slow.


The illness is transmitted for direct contact, of a fowl to another or through the particles of dust that It carries the wind of a galpón to another. The problem main it is that the chickens can transmit the Illness to their children through the egg.


Although the processing with antibióticos specific gives satisfactory results, economically speaking, the best is its control by means of the elimination of The animal patients. The tests serológicas they permit to detect the reproductoras positive to level of farm, with what can be offered fowls You free of this illness. The fertile eggs would be able to be treated with antibióticos as the tartrato of Tilosina, to eliminate the microorganisms of M. Gallisepticum.

The glutamato of eritromicina in concentrations of 2 g/gallon of water during three days has reduced notably The infection. The tartrato of tilosina is employed with very good results in dose of 0,5 g/l of water, During 2-3 days, depending on the infection.


Gumboro or bursitis

Agent causal

This illness is caused for a birnavirus, which is very resistant to the environmental conditions unfavorable, for which it is complicated its erradicación Of the farms infected.


Many times, the first symptom of the illness of Gumboro or Bursitis is a noise respiratorio. Other symptoms that they can be appreciated they are decaimiento, feathers Bristly, tremblings, diarrheas acuosas and prostration. The bud occur with more frequency when the Fowls have from 3 to 8 weeks of age. The mortality generally not it surpasses the 10% and in a second infection of the same lot, the mortality is still Smaller. The Purse of Fabricio (located upon the sewer), will be found inflamed and its size is able To be two or more times its normal size. In animals healthy, the Purse of Fabricio is smaller than the Vesícula. In the chronic cases, the purse will be more small (itself atrofia), for which the answer to the vacunación is smaller, enlarging the susceptibilidad To other infections.


The illness is very contagious and is transmitted for contact direct of the fowls, of its excrements; or by middle Of the equipment and clothes of the operarios.


Not yet an adequate processing is known. The prevention, of the reproductoras and the young fowls, by means of The vacunación is the best control of the illness. The most most efficient method to control the illness of Gumboro is that of inducing a high immunity to the mothers, which is transmitted its children by middle Of the egg.


Influenza aviar

Agent causal

Al the same as other virus of the influenza aviar, they belong To the family Orthomyxovridae. All the virus of the influenza that affect the animal servants they are Of the group "TO". The other groups "B" and "C" they affect only al to be human; however the type "TO" is the one that it originates generally the most most important epidemics In the man.


The infections caused by Influenza Aviar Highly Patógena (IAAP) they give as a result a marked depression, bristly feathers, inapetencia, excessive thirst, fall In the production of egg and diarrhea acuosa. This last one it is of a brilliant green color, being modified to Almost totally white.

The adult fowls frequently present inflammation of the barbillas and crests, besides edema around Of the eyes. Often the tips are found of The crests with a color cianótico or purple. The last eggs positions after initiated the bud, by it General they are without cascarón. The symptoms respiratorios they are able or not to be a factor significant of the illness, due to the gravity of the wound in the tráquea and to the accumulation of Mucosidad. The mortality and morbilidad, of to a 100%, it can be presented during the first 24 hours and to be prolonged to a week or more; although some animals seriously affected would be able To be recuperated.

This illness can be confused easily with New Castle or with sharp illnesses bacterianas as the Rage aviar.


It is believed that the migratory aquatic fowls are generally the responsible for introducing the virus In the chickens and chickens. The investigations they indicate that the virus extends from some to other by medium of the movement of the fowls infected, equipment, cardboards for egg or trucks with food contaminated and through the water contaminated with secreciones and by air way or aerosol, when The animals sneeze infected.

Processing and control

The vacunas inactive in oil they have shown to be effective, so much to reduce the mortality as To prevent the illness.

The processing with hidrocloruro of amantadina has been approved for use in humans since 1966 and is effective for atenuar the severity and incidencia of Influenza Aviar. It can be administered through the Water of beverage.

Not evidence exists that justify any anxiety that The virus aviares they be a threat for the humans.


Illness of Marek

Agent causal

The illness is caused for a virus herpes.


In few occasions occurs that some animals die without to present the characteristic symptoms of the illness; however, in most cases the affection is presented in the nerves ciáticos, which certain degree produces them of parálisis of The legs and wings. In cases advanced sees to the animal fallen with a leg stretched toward ahead and the other backwards, and one of the wings Falls, as trying to be supported in her. As part of the complex of leucosis, is also able to observe tumors in the liver, pulmones, kidneys, Ovarios, eyes and in other organs.

Due to the parálisis of the legs, the animals are not able to be mobilized to the troughs and bebederos, by it that gradually they lose weight until postradas in The soil, they die for inanición. The muscles of the pechuga they are reduced almost completely, palpándose Without meat the bone of the esternón or quilla. The symptoms they appear generally after the 15 weeks of age; being the upper mortality al 50% in lots Of fowls not vacunadas.


The transmisión of the virus he is carries out mainly through the escamas that they are removed of the folículos (root) of the feathers, which themselves They transport for the wind. These escamas they adhere to the particles of dust that accumulates in the walls and sieve of the poultry coops, where is able To survive for more than a year in those conditions. From there the importance that has the health in the installations, for which should be shaken the Sieves frequently.

Processing and control

To the day of today not no processing is known Against the Illness of Marek. Its control is carried out by means of the vacunación of all the animals, by the way subcutánea in dose of 0,2 ml, during the First 24 hours of life. This vacuna will protect to The fowls during all its life. The vacuna should be applied to the recently born fowls before They come out of the plant of incubación.


New Castle

Agent causal

The illness of New Castle is produced for a Paramyxovirus. Although it is known alone a serotipo of the virus, different stumps have been isolated, that itself they classify according to their virulencia or the velocity With which it can kill al embryo. The stump "lentogénica" (The Sota) is the one that delays more time in killing the embryo, the "mesogénica" (B1 and Roakin) is the intermediate stump, and the "velogénica" (Kansas) the stump more patógena And that it takes less time in killing the embryo.

At present the country is found free of this illness and thus it was declared for the Department of United agriculture of States of America (USDA).


The first symptoms are problems respiratorios with tos, I pant, estertores of the tráquea and a piar ronco, following then the characteristic nervous symptoms of this illness; in which the fowls place their head among the legs or backwards among the shoulders, moving the head and neck in circles and Walking backwards.

The mortality can be greater al 50% in animal youths, in ponedoras, although is not so high, the symptoms appear respiratorios and the production of eggs lowers to zero In one or two days. The production recuperates some six weeks later, but eggs will be found with the deformed and thin shell, and some to Without the shell. In the animals affected with New Castle can be observed to times a diarrhea verdosa That it indicates the food consumption lack.


This illness is very contagious and is transmitted for middle of the discharges nasales and excrement of the fowls Infected.

Processing and control

Not no effective processing against the illness exists Of New Castle. The only control is achieved by means of the vacunación, which is repeated several times During the life of the animal. It is recommended like norm general, the first one vacunación to the four days of born with the Stump B1 of the smooth type, then itself continues at twelve minutes after four weeks with the Stump The Sota. From here on itself vacunará each three Months with the Stump The Sota. For facility of application, when are large lots of fowls, themselves it recommends to do it through the water of beverage, in sufficient quantity as so that they can consume it In some 15-20 minutes. As estabilizador, al water it it should be added milk descremada in dust, to reason Of a spoonful by gallon.


Viruela aviar

Agent causal

It is produced for the virus (Borreliota avium), which him It disseminates very slowly. In ours half rural itself it knows it as "bubas" and "Pepilla".

Symptoms: The viruela aviar is presented in two forms:

The humid form or diftérica, affects the mucosas of the throat, mouth and tongue, provoking the formation of úlceras or false membranas yellowish; and

The cutaneous form or drought, that produces crusts or grains in The crest, barbillas and expensive.

In spite of that the cutaneous form it is more more frequent; the Humid form produces immediate one more mortality. In severe bud, the animals are put sad, To they stop eating and they descend of weight. The symptoms characteristic of the pústulas or grains of the expensive and crest as well as the yellow patches necróticos Of the throat and mouth they are difficult of confusing. These patches necróticos in the mouth, acquaintances in our country as pepilla, and the grains of the face not they should be eliminated, therefore al to remove them they leave úlceras sangrantes and enlarges the contagion to other animals Healthy.


The virus is transmitted for direct contact, of an animal to Another or through the food or water of beverage. The zancudos or other insects that suck blood would be able to be transmisores of this illness among fowls and Galerones. The animals that have suffered the illness and they recuperate, they remain like bearers of the virus, for which is recommended to eliminate them or al less not to mix them with animals more youths and Healthy.

Processing and control

Not no effective processing exists, although himself it recommends the use of antibióticos with the objective Of avoiding secondary infections. The use of the vacuna is a common practice among the avicultores, who they do it of routine by their under Cost and facility of application. It is recommended revacunar when some animal appear with the symptoms Described.

To avoid you spring up severe of the illness, owes itself vacunar immediately to all the animals that not they show the characteristic symptoms; without embargo, once some of them be manifested, is not advisable vacunar, since a strong reaction To the vacuna would be able them ocasionar the death.

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